Unemployment in India:A major challenge to deal with.

Unemployment in India:A major challenge to deal with.

If heaven really exists: then heaven is the job, hell is unemployment, while life is merely an interview.

~Mokokoma Mokhonoana

What is Unemployment?

Unemployment in India:A major challenge to deal with

The state when an individual or a group of individuals are actively seeking a job but aren’t successful in getting one is called unemployment. Unemployment is also termed as one of the silent killers of the economy of the nation. A nation which can’t provide an adequate number of jobs to its youth stumbles in the economic domain.

Talking about the 7th largest country and the 2nd most populous country in the world, i.e. Youth are struggling to get a job and make a living. Imagine yourself spending  lots of money for education and merely excelling in it, doesn’t guarantee that you will have a bright future ahead. So without any further ado let’s discuss some statistics related to unemployment in India making the picture more clear. 

Statistics related to unemployment in India

  1. Number of Employed iIndian people in the following years.

a) 2016-17: 407.3 Million

b) 2017-18: 405.9 Million

c) 2018-19: 400.9 Million

d) 2018-20: 403.5 Million

2. There were around 40 million people unemployed in India in January 2021.

3.India adds 10 million new job seekers every year.

In an estimated population of 1,391.91 million (2021 estimates) , the number of jobs in the country don’t do justice with the humongous population of India.

Reasons of Unemployment in India:

1.Rote learning based Education system:

The education system of India hasn’t undergone major changes in such a dynamic world. Schools and colleges focus on rote learning and philosophy of marks. Innovative ideas and skills enhancement aren’t given much room to grow. Graduates have theoretical knowledge with degrees to support them, but practice knowledge is missing which becomes a major cause of unemployment.

2. Policies of government:

The policies of government like Demonetization and GST have collapsed the handicraft industries, cottage industries and affected small scale workers. Informal sector has suffered a heavy blow due to such policies and numerous jobs were lost.

3.More dependency on Agriculture:

Having the 2nd largest arable land in the world after China, most of the Indian people are dependent on agriculture for livelihood. But as agriculture in India is largely dependent on rainfall, weather patterns and traditional methods, it produces seasonal employment. So, most of the people remain unemployed when there is not much to do in the farms.

4. Increased use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) :

A recent study by McKinsey Global Institute suggests that by 2030,Intelligent agents and robots could replace as much as 30% of the world’s current human labour. Use of modern technologies at construction sites, driverless vehicles has increased efficacy but led to decline in employment.

5. Caste System:

Constitution of India ensures fundamental rights for its people, the right to freedom to practice any profession and equal opportunity in employment, but in many cases, work isn’t given to the deserving candidates but given to people belonging to a certain community.

6. Economic growth:

Slow economic growth isn’t able to keep pace with the rising unemployment in India.

7. Rising Population:

One of the major causes of unemployment is rising population. Competition is cut throat and jobs are limited.

8. Defective Planning and Political Will:

Unemployment in India : A major challenge.

The current NDA government in its manifesto promised 20 million jobs for the youth. Instead of walking its talk, the government has privatised PSUs rendering thousands of employees jobless. Hence, there is a complete lack of political will for job generation.

Impact of Unemployment in India:

1.Pushing families to poverty and below poverty line.

2.Increasing crime rates in the country. More and more people have resorted to burglary, theft and unlawful activities just to support their family.

3. Unemployed people can be easily brainwashed by anti-social elements. Because of this, they lose faith in the democratic ethos and feel that the government will do nothing for their betterment and that motivates them to resort to arms and violence.

4. Total waste of human resources, they end up taking drugs, alcohol. In fact, suicide are also very prevalent these days due to unemployment.

5. Besides , unemployment also affects the economic development of the nation.

6.Overcrowding of cities and towns due to the location of more employment. Also, opportunities leads to pollution, traffic jams and an increase in crime rates.

Steps to tackle unemployment in India:

1.Decentralisation of industries and industrial activities. So, people can get employment in the region of their vicinity.

2. More focus on the education system to develop skills and foster innovative ideas, so that a skilled labour force can be generated. A new education policy promises that but stricter implementation of it will ensure it.

3. Political will of the government regarding employment . So, that it can take major concrete actions. More investment in health, education, police, judiciary can create many government jobs. Also, timely conduct of exams and appointment of the selected individuals will give a major boost to the job aspirants.

4. Developing rural areas to mitigate migration of people to urban areas. Also, reducing job pressure and overcrowding in cities.

5. Removing social barriers to ensure equal participation of women. Hence, equal wages at smaller levels for society’s overall development.

6. Implementation of government schemes like Make in India, Startup India, Stand Up India and Skill India, PMKVY and MGNREGA in an efficacious manner to boost employment drive.

7. Identifying the informal sector as a major job provider and providing incentives and formulating schemes for the growth of them.

8. More investment in Research and Development and Innovation Sector. Due to that, companies can foster and provide skilled and unskilled labour to a major chunk of the population.

9. Attracting foreign companies in india. So, they can provide jobs to Indians.

10. Many manufacturers in India have labour intensive work like food processing, hardware, apparels and more. They can create special packaging jobs for individuals.


Unemployment is a serious issue and needs to be tackled with proper implementation of policies. Moreover, getting a job is a basic right of everyone and the government should do the needful to provide them that. Equally important, the nation can only uplift if each individual uplifts himself and that will be only possible if employment is guaranteed.

~ Amit Pandey


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